The first is to change the appearance of what is inside the editor windows. That can be done with the Eclipse Colour Theme plugin (http://eclipsecolorthemes.org/). My favourite editor theme is Vibrant Ink with the Monaco font. They explain how to install their themes very well (http://eclipsecolorthemes.org/?view=how-to-use), although you get a fine set of dark themes with the default plugin install and may not need to come back to their website for any more. Get the plugin here.
The second stage is darkening the chrome of the UI,
which is all the widgets and menus and everything outside of the child window
This plugin gives you a GUI editor for the chrome colour scheme:
If you want a dark one, go ahead and click away until eclipse is dark.
Once you are done, some GUI surface area will show through the system theme
as mentioned at the top of this post.
Rather than using that editor, you could install the pre-baked Dark Juno
The install is manual.
Start by downloading it from here:
It has to be copied into your eclipse dropins folder. This lives next to the eclipse executable, not in your workspace or someplace like that. In my case the command to do the copy was:
cp ./plugins/com.github.eclipsecolortheme.themes_18.104.22.168207121019.jar /usr/lib/eclipse/dropins/
Create your Own: http://www.vogella.com/blog/2012/07/11/eclipse-4-is-beautiful-create-your-own-eclipse-4-theme/
Eclipse Css Styling Tutorial: http://www.vogella.com/articles/Eclipse4CSS/article.html
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